If you spent any time watching Chris Froome and Team Sky winning the Tour d' France or the Vuelta d' Espana this year, then you are familiar with the Pinarello Dogma F10. With the exception of the harshest cobbled Classics, where the Pinarello K8 is the extraordinarily compliant bike of choice, Pinarello and Team Sky have rejected the current trend of using specialty bikes to suit each stage profile, they have opted for an all-in-one approach. This frame was designed to provide you and Chris Froome a general level of high performance, comfort and durability. The Pinarello Dogma F10 is a darn good bike!
And the numbers support this. The Dogma F10 is 6.3 percent lighter and seven percent stiffer than it's award winning predecessor the F8. The Dogma F10 features a concave downtube design, reducing drag by 12.6 percent and a new fork which contributes another ten percent reduction in drag.
Made from Torayca T1100 1K carbon fibre, the highest tensile strength in the cycling world, all the frame shapes have been updated, improved and strengthened as has the new Onda F10 fork which borrows the dropout fin design from the Bolide time trial bike.
Pinarello has optimized the entire frame for aero efficiency, going so far as to design a bespoke carbon bar-stem, seatpost and Twin Force integrated seat collar for the Dogma F10. Even the design of the saddle was kept in-house.
Despite these changes Pinarello refers to the Dogma F10 as an evolution rather than a revolution. The Dogma F8's geometry remains unchanged as, for the most part, has the rear triangle which was already particularly nice in the Dogma F. The seatstay junction is made using a single merged piece of carbon fibre, which only splits close to the rear wheel and allows for clearance of up to 28c tires. The Pinarello Dogma F10 is designed with internal cable routings for either mechanical or electronic groupos which further enhance it's aerodynamics. For a detailed discussion of the design and features of the Pinarello Dogma F10 we offer a link to Pinarello's Dogma F10 Whitepaper 1.0.
The Pinarello Dogma F10 comes in 13 sizes, 7 standard as well as custom, colors and weighs in at a respectable 830 grams in the 53cm size. If you have any questions please contact the Pinarello experts of Lakeside Bicycles at 503-699-8665 or by e-mail at firstname.lastname@example.org.
The in-depth aerodynamic analysis and the vast amount of data derived during the development of the Bolide HR and the Bolide TT was applied to optimize the aero performance of the Dogma F10.
Analysis and improvements were focused on reducing the overall drag of the entire bike+rider system. Aerodynamics is a complex area of study due to the interaction between airflow and all the components, not just the frame and fork. The optimization of the parts/components one by one can actually reduce aerodynamic performance for the complete system precisely because it does not take interactions between those parts into account. On the other hand a modification of a component that actually causes an increase in local drag can and often does result in an overall performance iprovement.
The down tube is on of the major influencers of bicycle frame aerodynamics. Because of it's position just behind the front wheel, and it's dimensions (the most massive tube of the frame), it generates more than 15% of total drag. Intuitively then, the reduction of drag caused by the down tube will have a significant influence on reducing overall drag. Because of the complexity of the aerodynamic interactions between the down tube, frame, wheels and rider it is especially difficult to design.
The down tube is placed in front of the the water bottles and the seat tube and, in effect, protects them from airflow. It was thought that even a small redesign of the down tube would lead to an increase in overall drag. What we found was that by expanding the focus of our research on a drathe interaction of the down tube and water bottles we were able to achieve a significant overall performance improvement.
We developed several possible down tube cross sections in order to optimize this interaction. CFD analysis allowed us to compare these many options.
The chard below is an extract of the results when we compared the Dogma F8 with the Dogma f10:
The final design of the down tube lead to extraordinary results: drag of the tube alitself was reduced while, at the same time, reducing system drag. The final result was an overall reduction of 12.6%
The images below compare the airflow between the Dogma F8 and the Dogma F10. Blue indicates low pressure areas and it can be readily seen that the Dogma F10 bennefits from a small but significan reduction in the low pressure area. This effect, multiplied by the length of the area was what gave us our improvement.
The next images show how he air flows along the bike. The transition of airflow between the down tube and the bottle is smoother on the Dogma F10 due to the down tube partially sheilding the bottle
The front of the bike is it's the most imortant aerodynamic element because it is the first part which interacts with airflow and influences everything behind. Even a small aerodynamic improvements in this area are crucial.
On road bikes the wheels are finfixed using quick release skewers. The quick release consists of a rod threaded on one end with a lever operated cam assembly on the other. This mechansim allows quick wheel changes but, in terms of aerodynamics, is sub optimal. The nut end and, especially, the lever are quite bulky and have a disproportionate impact on overall aerodynamic performance.
We determined that it might be possible to mitigate aerodynamic the effects of skewers by modifying the dropouts. an in-depth analysis of this was performed during the development of the Bolide HR. The CFD image below shows the drag gnerated bhend the fork of the is quite small:
The presence of the quick release lever generates a large low pressure area. Modifying the shape of the dropout by adding material to form a faring where the low pressure area was large, we were able to reduce it and measurably decrease overall drag. This small modification has lead to a drag reduction at the fork of up to 10%.
IThe images above show the comparison between theslipstream generated by the left dropout lever on the Bolide and the Bolide TT. Because of the design of the dropout which encloses part of the lever, the low pressure area is narrower and, especially, tends to move towards the frame. In the Bolide, the low preassure area moves awawy from the frame.Even though the local low preassure area is larger, the overall effect was to reduce final drag.
On the Bolide HR we further reduced drag by integrating the wheel fixing nuts. We later used this technique while developing the Bolide TT but eventually returned to commercial quick releases . On the Dogma F10 we used the same faring concept from the Bolide TT, taking into account the forks weight. The final design is a compromise between optimal aerodynamics and low weight. The picture below shows, from left to right, the dropouts from the Dogma F10, the Bolide TT and the Bolide HR.
a. Tubin Design
Cross sections and the overall shape of tubes as much as the materials choice are critically important to ensure stiffness, lightness and ride. At the same time, as discussed above, it has a deep influence on aerodynamics. The final design of the tubes determines if there is an optimal compromise between these design parameters.
Since 2009 Pinarello has studied and developed the asymmetry concept. At first it mounds rather strange, but the logic behind it is compelling. A "normal" frame is symmetric from right to left. Although this may sound logical, in fact it completely ignores the crucial fact that the transmission (chain set, chain and gears) are on the right side. When the rider is pushing the pedals, the majority of the forces from tension on the chain are acting only n the right side of the bike. A correct design should take this fundamental asymmetry into account and result in an asymmetric frame. A symmetric frame will cause a reduction in the frame's stiffness and and unpleasant feeling ride, especially under high stress while sprinting or climbing etc. The asymmetric design of Pinarello frames (the right side of the frame and fork tubes are larger than the left) optimally counteracts the asymmetric forces and provides a stiffer and more balanced bike.
In 2013, while developing the Dogma F8 in collaboration with FEM, we revolutionized this concept. Tubes were not only enlarged but also shifted to the right side of the frame. The result was an amazing 12% increase in stiffness and a 16% increase in the balance of the frame.
In developing the Dogma F10 we further expanded on this asymmetry of the frame, moving the tubes even more toward the right side of the frame. This new design further improved the overall performance of the bike, especially in terms of stiffness.
Below you can see the comparison between the down tubes of the Dogma F8 (left) and the Dogma F10 (right) near the BB. The red line is positioned at the same distance from the center of the bike in both pictures and highlights that the down tube of the Dogma F10 has been moved further toward the right. This relatively small difference has measurably improved the performance of the frame
b. Materials's Choice
The proper choice of materials deeply influences the performance of the frame. Carbon Fibre Reinforced Polymer (CFRP) in particular can be optimized for every area of the frame to achieve the optimal combination of stiffness and light weight. Carbon fibre (more properly "composite materials") are a mixture of various types of carbon fibre and resin and it's ultimate properties depend on the synergistic properties of the carbon fibres, resin, lay-up and other production methods. Changing any of these properties will have often profound effects on the final outcome.
Traditional metals, steel, aluminum or titanium, are isotropic materials, their properties are uniform in all directions. This results in predictable and often satisfactory average properties but does not allow the designer the option of optimization at each stress point. Composite materials, on the other hand, can be orthotropic materials, they have properties that very along three mutually orthogonal dual axes of rotational symmetry. The materials properties change depending on the direction at which stress is applied so that the material can be optimized to allow for local stresses
For example: The down tube of the frame is primarily subjected to torsion and lateral flection. The effect of these stresses is very burdensome to the down tube, which should be reinforced to resist them. In the past the down tube was a circular tube made of steel which is an adequately stiff material capable of counteracting those stresses. When the industry moved to aluminum, which results in a lighter frame but is less stiff than steel, the shape of down tubes became elliptical with the longer dimension transverse to the frame. This increased the inertial moment of the tube which compensated for the properties of the new material. Today DFRP can be draped in the optimal direction to counteract stresses, thus allowing the possibility of a highly aero cross-section without loss of stiffness.
A second advantage of composite materials is the use of different types and grades of carbon fibre and/or resin based on local stresses. In areas where stiffness is important, a high modulus fibre (HM) can be used, while where strength is the primary concern a high strength fibre (HT) can be selected. This variation of materials can be done locally in the same frame, while a frame made of a metallic material is denied this option.
On the Dogma F10 the main material is Torayca T1100 1K which ensures the highest tensile strength currently available. this choice contributes to the impact strength of the frame making breakage in response to an insult less likely.
The improvement of asymmetry, with the down tube moved further to the right, allowed us to increase the stiffness by careful selection of shape while using less material allowing us to keep weight at a minimum.
Thanks to the highest grade of carbon fibre we were able to get a lighter frame while maintaining it's strength. T1100 fibers have been used in the higher stress areas in order to take advantage of it's incomparable strength.
a. RP Samples
During the development of the Dogma F10 we made extensive use of 3D printing which gave us real time access to physical prototypes. By using an in-house 3D printer we had ready access to numerous samples of each part of the frame and were able to verify aesaesthetics and fit. For example in the picture below we were able to simultaneously compare several prototype tubes with out the often lengthy waits we traditionally faced with conventional design procedures.
We also printed RP samples of entire frame prototypes for aesthetic and design optimization prior to the expensive process of building actual molds.
b. Carbon Samples
Once we finished with the main design and developmnet we proceeded with production of carbon prototypes. These were used first, to verify that completly assembled frames satisfyed our aesthetic and performance goals. With these prototypes available we were able to perform static and fatigue tests and to measure the stiffness of the completed frame against our target goals.
a. Lab Tests
b. Road Tests
We also performed multiple road tests to verify the real world behavior of the Dogma F10. These tests also offered useful feedback from various levels of riders from enthusiastic armatures to world class professionals to further improve the final product. Chris Froome was the first rider to test the new Dogma F10. His initial comment was "Great work guys!", very encouraging feedback from arguably the greatest road rider today.
a. Structural Performance
Once the design phase was finished we produced samples to test performance of the frame against our initial specifications.
We performed fatigue and crash tests on several frames to verify strength and safety. We also measured the mechanical performance (stiffness and weight) against a 53cm Dogma F8.
What is clearly evident from this chard is a 6.3% reduction in weight to 820 g in the 53cm Dogma F10. All values of stiffness were higher than the for the Dogma F8. Comparing the stiffness of two frames without considering the effect of weight can produce misleading results: generally the more material used the stiffer the frame....but also the heavier. To counteract this we measured Specific Stiffness, the value of the stiffness divided by the weight. The specific stiffness of the Dogma F10 is 7% higher than the Dogma F8.
In short: The Dogma F10 is 6.3% lighter and 7% stiffer than the Dogma F8. We are very pleased.
b. Riding Performance
The numbers above are extraordinary, particularly as they are in comparison to the Dogma F8, but at the same time they are quite technicle and do not speak well to ride feel. What a rider commonly perceives is the reactivity and handling of a bike; frame, fork and wheels are the main players in this game.
Reactivity, the frames quickness in transferring pressure on the pedals into acceleration, turns out to be one of the major performance features noticed by the rider. this characteristic depends primarily on 2 factors: weight and stiffness. The lower weight of the Dogma F10 ensures quicker accelerations and decelerations. The higher stiffness, especially of the down tube/bottom bracket and chain stays, results in better power transfer without power loss due to deformation of the frame. All the power generated by the rider's legs goes directly to the rear wheel, where it belongs.
Handling is the capability to change direction quickly and predictably and mainly depends on the geometry (head tube angle, fork rake, wheelbase, etc.) and the frontal stiffness of the frame.
The Dogma F10 shares the identical geometry with the Dogma F8, which was judged by riders as among the most precise and responsive in the world even before the Dogma F10's increases in head tube and fork stiffness.
These theoretical improvements have been repeatedly confirmed by real riders. We believe that it is now time for you to test and enjoy your own Pinarello super bike.
Integration of all the parts ensures the optimal bicycle performance. In particular:
E-Link: the junction of for Shimano's new DuraAce Di2 (EW-RS910) will be integrated into the down tube and easily accessible for adjustment and recharge;
Internal cable routing: housings and electronic cables pass internally through the frame for better aerodynamics and aesthetics;
Think2 technology: the frame is compatible with both mechanical and electronic group sets;
Internal battery: the battery is fixed inside the frame for better aerodynamics and aesthetics;
Integrated seatclamp: the Twin Force seatclamp is integrated into the frame ensuring low aero drag and firm clamping of the seatpost.
d. Main Features
The incomparable performance of the Dogma F10 depends heavily on the innovative features developed into it. The most significant of which are: "Fork Flap", E-Link, and The Concave Down Tube.
With the introduction of the Dogma F10 Pinarello continues and extends their tradition of technological leadership:
|Dogma F10 Innovations:|
|Concave Down Tube|
|Torayca T1100 1K Carbon|
|Italian Bottom Bracket|
|Tapered 1-1/8" (Upper) to 1-1/2" (lower) Headset|
|Internal Cable Routing|
|Internal Battery Mount|
|Twin Force Seat Clamp Closure|
|3 X Air|
|Flat Back Profile|
|25mm Tire Compatibility|
|820g (raw frame in 53cm size)|
Pinarello is accustomed to offering every single rider the best possible bicycle. In aid of this we offer the Dogma F10 in 13 unique sizes to allow every rider to find the one that best suits their body. Everyone of these sizes is designed and produced individually: Larger sizes are reinforced and shaped in order to better manage the higher stresses imposed by larger riders while the smaller sizes are manufactured using less material thus both saving weight and resulting in a smoother ride for lighter, smaller riders.
|Frame||Torayca T1100 1K high tensile / high modulus carbon with removable Braze on front derailleur mount|
|Fork||Pinarello Onda F10 with aero tabs|
|Headset||Pinarello drop-in 1-1/8 top 1-1/2 bottom|
|Tires||Up to 700 by 25c|
|Bottom Bracket||70mm Italian threaded|
|Seat Post||Bespoke Pinarello aero|
|Seat Binder||Integrated aero Twin Force closure|
|Accessories & Extras||2yrs Warranty|
|Color(s)||165 Sideral White, 166 Magma, 167 Black Lava, 168 Sulfur Yellow, 169 Asteroid Red, 170 BOB, 905 Team Sky, 919 Team Sky White, Team Wiggins, 912 Wiggins White, F100 Giro, 929 Yello Rhino TDF'17, 928 Yellow TDF'17, 932 King of Spain Rhino, 933 King of Spain, 935 King of Spain White, 911 Columbia, 913 GFP17 and Custom (MyWay)|
|Sizes||42, 44, 46.5, 47, 50, 51.5, 53, 54, 55, 56, 57.5, 59.5, 62cm|
|Weight||Size 53: 820g / 1.181lb|